ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Teachers: 
Credits: 
6
Site: 
PARMA
Year of erogation: 
2021/2022
Unit Coordinator: 
Disciplinary Sector: 
Organic Chemistry
Semester: 
First semester
Year of study: 
2
Language of instruction: 

Italian

Learning outcomes of the course unit

The program's goal is to give to the student the basic instruments to rationally
understand the fundamental processes of the organic and applied Chemistry even
in connection with the sustainable development.

Prerequisites

Exam of Chemistry

Course contents summary

The students will be first introduced to the basic theories of VSEPR and of the
valence bond for the description of organic molecules. Some basic concepts of
chemical thermodynamics and kinetics will be also reminded with particular
attention to 1st and 2nd order reactions, to chemical catalysis and to competitive
reactions. The concepts of nucleophile and electrophile will be compared with those
of Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis acid and base. The concepts of organic
stereochemistry will be described together with the stereochemical nomenclature
and properties of the stereoisomers with particular attention to biological and
pharmaceutical world.
A systematic survey of the structure, properties and reactivity of organic molecules,
divided by functional groups, will be undertaken. In particular this analysis will
include the following classes of organic compounds: Alkanes snd Cycloalkanes;
Alkenes and Alkynes; Alkyl halides; Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols; Benzenes and
Aromatic compounds; Amines; Ketones and Aldehydes; Carboxylic acids and their
derivatives.
Finally the reactivity of enolate anions in aldolic, Claisens and Dieckmann consensation reactions will be presented.

Course contents

INTRODUCTION: Summary of the fundamental physico-chemical notions about thermochemistry, thermodynamic and kinetic. Soft interactions.
COVALENT BOND: atom electronic configuration; Lewis structures; ionic bond; electronic structure and molecular shape; sp3, sp2 and sp orbitals; functional groups. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
ACIDS AND BASES: Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry theoroies; Lewis theory; acid-base equilibrium. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES: structure, isomers; nomenclature; IUPAC system; conformations; physical properties; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
CHIRALITY: enantiomer classification; Fisher structure; optical activity; R,S system; enantiomers and diastereoisomers; mesocompounds; resolution. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
ALKENES: structure; nomenclature; cis-trans and E-Z systems; preparation; natural alkenes; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
ALKYNES: structure; nomenclature; physical properties; preparation; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
CONJUGATED DIENES: structure, nomenclature; 1,2- and 1,4-electrophylic additions. DI: Knowledge and understanding.
ALKYL HALIDES: structure; nomenclature; preparation; nucleophilic substitution: SN1 and SN2; conversion of alcohols into alkyl halides; substitution vs elimination reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements.
ALCOHOLS: structure; nomenclature; physical properties; preparation; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements.
ETHERS AND EPOXIDES: structure; preparation; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements.
AROMATIC COMPOUNDS: structure; aromaticity; nomenclature; electrophilic aromatic substitution. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.
AMINES: structure and classification; basicity; preparation and reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: structure and nomenclature; preparation; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: structure; nomenclature; acidity; preparation; reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.
ACID DERIVATIVES: structure; nomenclature; hydrolysis and general reactions. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.
ENOLATE ANIONS: production; aldol reactions; malonic and acetoacetic syntheses. DI: Knowledge and understanding; making judgements; applying knowledge and understanding.

Recommended readings

The slides utilized during the whole course are available to the
students on the web site of the Course.

W. H. Brown, C. S. Foote, “Chimica organica” - EDISES

W. H. Brown "Introduzione alla chimica organica” - EDISES

Teaching methods

Oral lessons and weekly exercises. The lessons will be organized in presence with the possibility to have lessons also remotely in asynchronous mode (uploaded on the Elly page of the course)

Assessment methods and criteria

1) IT IS POSSIBLE TO CONDUCT EXAMINATIONS IN PRESENCE.
In this case the examination will consist in a written test (2 hours) followed by and oral discussion aimed to verify the ability of the student to face organic reaction problems. The exam is passed with a score of at least 18.
2) IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO CARRY ON EXAMINATION IN PRESENCE (ONLY ON-LINE).
In this case, the evaluation will consist in a written test (1 hour and 20 minutes) followed by and oral discussion aimed to verify the ability of the student as described above.